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Welcome to our bodybuilding dictionary of basic bodybuilding terms and definitions
This vitamin is used for night vision, body tissue repair
moderate-intensity work that uses up oxygen at or below the level at which your
cardiorespiratory (heart-lung) system can replenish oxygen in the working
muscles. Aerobic literally means with oxygen, and it is the only type of
exercise which burns body fat to meet its energy needs. Bodybuilders
engage in aerobic workouts to develop additional cardiorespiratory fitness, as
well as to burn off excess body fat to achieve peak contest muscularity.
Common aerobic activities include running, cycling, swimming, dancing, and
walking. Depending on how vigorously you play them, most racquet sports
can also be aerobic exercise.
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP)
An important high energy compound, which is
present in your muscle fibers. Especially used during the
anabolic and anti-catabolic phase of working muscles.
ALPHA KETOGLUTARATE (AKG)
Potential increase in ATP. Improves
aerobic/anaerobic exercise if combined with vitamin B6.
This is an abbreviation for
the Adult Minimum Daily Requirement of certain nutrients as established by the
United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Chemical molecules which combine to form the
various proteins. There are 22 common amino acids. The
human body can synthesize (manufacture) 14 of them. The
other 8 must come from the diet and are therefore called
Also called anabolic
steroids, these are artificial male hormones that aid in nitrogen retention and
thereby add to a male bodybuilder's muscle mass and strength. These drugs
are not without hazardous side effects, however, and they are legally available
only through a physician's prescription. Steroids are available in most
gyms via the black market, but it is very dangerous to use such unknown
substances to increase muscle mass.
Exercise of much higher
intensity than aerobic work, which uses up oxygen more quickly than the body can
replenish it in the working muscles. Anaerobic exercise eventually builds
up a significant oxygen debt that forces an athlete to terminate the exercise
session rather quickly. Anaerobic exercise (the kind of exercise to which
bodybuilding training belongs) burns up glycogen (muscle sugar) to supply its
energy needs. Fast sprinting is a typical anaerobic form of exercise.
Androgenics are drugs that
simulate the effects of the male hormone testosterone in the human body.
Androgens do build a degree of strength and muscle mass, but they also stimulate
secondary sex characteristics such as increased body hair, a deepened voice, and
high levels of aggression. Indeed, many bodybuilders and powerlifters take
androgen to stimulate aggressiveness in the by resulting in more productive
This vitamin is used for blood building, carbohydrate
metabolism, energy, growth, muscle tone, circulation
maintenance of intestine, stomach, heart and appetite.
This vitamin is used by the body for antibody and red
cell formation, cell respiration, metabolism of protein,
fat and carbohydrate.
This vitamin is used for circulation, growth,
sex hormone production, metabolism of protein, fat and
carbohydrate, and cholesterol level reduction.
B5 (PANTOTHENIC ACID)
This vitamin is used for antibody and steroid
formation, conversion of carbohydrate, fat and protein
into energy, and growth stimulation.
This vitamin is used for fat, protein metabolism
(particularly Methionine and Tryptophan), antibody
formation, and sodium potassium balance.
This vitamin is used for fat, protein and
carbohydrate metabolism, blood cell information, and
fatty acid synthesis.
A term referring to an even
relationship of body proportions in a man's physique. Perfectly balanced
physical proportions are in a much-sought-after trait among competitive
This is the steel shaft that
forms the basic part of barbell or dumbbell. These bars are normally about
one inch thick, and they are often encased in a revolving metal sleeve.
Normally measuring between four and six feet in length, a barbell is the most
basic piece of weight-training and bodybuilding equipment. Indeed, you can
train every major skeletal muscle group in your body using on a barbell.
There are two major and types of barbells used for exercise in common use,
adjustable sets (in which you can easily add or subtract plates by removing a
detachable outside collar held in place on each side by a set screw) and fixed
barbells (in which the plates are either welded or bolted permanently in place).
Fixed weights are arranged in variety poundages on long racks in commercial
bodybuilding gyms, the approximate poundage for each one painted or etched on
the bar. Fixed weights relieve you of the problem of changing plates on
your barbell for each new exercise. While fixed barbells and dumbbells are
normally found in large commercial gyms, adjustable barbell and dumbbell sets
are more frequently used at home.
This is a bodybuiding
exercise, which stresses the largest muscle groups of your body (e.g., the
thighs, back, and/or chest), often in combination with smaller muscles.
You will be able to use very heavy weights in basic exercises in order to build
great muscle mass and physical power. Typical basic movements include
squats, bench presses, and deadlifts. (You should also see the listing for
A wide variety of exercise
benches is available for use in doing barbell and dumbbell exercises either
lying or seated on a bench. The most common type of bench, a flat exercise
bench, can be used for chest, shoulder, and arm movements. Incline and
decline benches (which are angled at about 30-45 degrees) allow movements for
the chest, shoulder, and arms.
The preferred form of vitamin A. Acts as a
natural antioxidant, and nutritionists today feel it is
an important part of a balanced nutritional regiment.
A sterol (plant hormone) derived from crude germ
oils. Increases growth hormone and natural testosterone
levels in the body.
This vitamin is used for a mild stimulant, capillary
The scientific study of body
positions, or form, in sport. In bodybuilding, biomechanics studies body
form when exercising with weights. When you have good biomechanics in a
bodybuilding exercise, you will be safely placing maximum beneficial stress on
your working muscles.
This vitamin is used for fat, protein and carbohydrate
metabolism, cell growth, and fatty acid production.
The basal metabolic rate is
the speed at which your resting body burns calories to provide for its basic
survival needs. You can elevate your BMR and more easily achieve lean body
mass through consistent exercise, and particularly through aerobic workouts.
A type of weight training
applied in conjunction with sound nutritional practices to alter the shape of
one's body. In the context of this book, bodybuilding is a competitive
sport nationally and internationally in both amateur and professional categories
for men, women, and mixed pairs. However, a majority of individuals uses
bodybuilding methods merely to lose excess body fat or build up a too thin part
of the body.
BRANCHED CHAIN AMINO ACIDS (BCAAs)
Three amino acids (Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine)
which are quickly absorbed by muscle tissue and help
create a positive nitrogen balance thus promoting
A naturally extracted digestive enzyme that may help
accelerate tissue repair.
This is a burning sensation
that you feel in the muscle that you are training. This burn is caused by a rapid buildup of fatigue toxins in
the muscle and is a good indication that you are optimally working a muscle
group. The best bodybuilders
consistently forge past the pain barrier erected by muscle burn and consequently
build very massive, highly defined muscle.
A training technique used to
push a set past the normal failure point, and thereby to stimulate it to greater
hypertrophy. Burns consist of
short, quick, bouncy reps 4-6 inches in range of motion.
Most bodybuilders do 8-12 burns at the end of a set that has already been
taken to failure. They generate terrific burn in the muscles, hence the name of
C (ASCORBIC ACID)
This vitamin is used for collagen production, bone and
tooth formation, healing, digestion, red blood cell
formation, infection and shock resistance, iodine
conservation, and protection against vitamin oxidation.
This mineral is used for bone and tooth
formation, muscle growth and contraction, blood clotting,
heart rhythm, and nerve transmission and tranquilizing.
This stands for: Canadian
Amateur Federation of Bodybuilders, the sports federation responsible in Canada
for administering amateur bodybuilding for men, women, and mixed pairs.
The CAFB is one of the more than 120 national bodybuilding federations
affiliated internationally with IFBB.
Any of various neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen (as sugars, starches, cellulose) most of which are
formed by green plants and which constitute a major class
of animal foods.
This is the Physical fitness
condition of the heart, circulatory system and lungs that is indicative of good
An amino acid which encourages the body to burn stored
fat for energy rather than carbohydrates.
A method of pushing a muscle
to keep working far past the point at which it would normally fail to continue
contracting due to excessive fatigue buildup.
In cheating you will use a self-administered body swing, jerk, or
otherwise poor exercise form once you have reached the failure point to take
some of the pressure off the muscles and allow them to continue a set for two or
three repetitions past failure.
A bar attached high on the
wall or gym ceiling, on which you can do chins, hanging leg raises, and other
movements for your upper body. A
chinning bar is analogous to the high bar male gymnasts use in national and
This vitamin is used for fat and cholesterol metabolism,
nerve transmission, lecithin formation, and liver and
gall bladder regulation.
A mineral important in the metabolism of sugars and
insulin production. Recent studies have shown that this
mineral taken in 200 mcg (.2mg) daily will greatly
increase lean body mass while decreasing fat.
A special form of
bodybuilding through which you can simultaneously increase aerobic conditioning,
muscle mass, and strength. In
circuit training, you will plan a series of 10-20 exercises in a circuit around
the gym. The exercises chosen
should stress all parts of the body. These
movements are performed with an absolute minimum of rest between exercises.
Then at the end of a circuit, a rest interval of 2-5 minutes is taken
before going through the circuit again. Three-five
circuits would constitute a circuit-training program.
Conjugated Linoleic Acid - one of the three fatty acids
found in fish oil.
This movement consists of
raising a barbell or two dumbbells from the floor to your shoulders in one
smooth motion to prepare for an overhead lift.
To properly execute a clean movement, you must use the coordinated
strength of your legs, back, shoulders, and arms.
The main protein constituent of connective tissue and of
the organic substance of bones.
A clamp is used to hold
plates securely in place on a barbell or dumbbell bar.
The cylindrical metal clamps are held in place on the bar by means of a
set screw threaded through the collar and tightened securely against the bar.
Inside collars keep plates from sliding inward and injuring your hands,
while outside collars keep plates from sliding off the barbell in the middle of
This mineral controls oxidation of vitamin C, collagen,
elastin, bone, hemoglobin, and red blood cell formation;
and the body's healing processes.
CoQ10 (COENZYME Q10)
A molecule that controls oxygen flow within
cells and acts as a catalyst in the creation of energy.
A relatively new form of
bodybuilding competition in which man-woman teams compete against others with
particularly appealing posing routines featuring adagio and other dance
movements and lifts. Also called,
“Mixed Pairs Competition,” this event is rapidly gaining international
popularity. With the bodybuilding community and public, and is held in both
amateur and professional World Championships.
A naturally occurring dietary component found
exclusively in muscle meats and dairy products. All
commercially sold Creatine Monohydrate is from synthetic
CUT UP (OR CUT)
A term used to denote a
bodybuilder who has an extremely high degree of muscular definition due to a low
degree of body fat.
A chemical compound composed of amino acids and
iron which acts as a carrier of oxygen with the
mitochondria. Allows for more oxygen uptake by the cells,
thus prolonging endurance.
This vitamin is used for metabolism of calcium and
phosphorous, maintenance of nervous system, blood
clotting, heart action, skin respiration and bone
The absence of fat over
clearly delineated muscular movement. Definition
is often referred to as “muscularity,” and a highly defined bodybuilder has
so little body fat that very fine grooves of muscularity called “striations”
will be clearly visible over each major muscle group.
This is the hardness of the
muscle, which is also related to muscular definition. A bodybuilder can be well defined and still have excess fat
within each major muscle complex. However,
when he has muscle density, even this intramuscular fat has been eliminated. A
combination of muscle mass and muscle density is highly prized among all
To dry up, removing all the water, dehydrate.
Dehydroepiandrosterone - is a hormone produced by the
adrenal gland. Primary function is to produce estrogen
The biologically active coenzyme of vitamin 12, necessary
in the metabolism of fat, proteins and carbohydrates.
Some studies have shown it to produce results in strength
and size comparable to steroids.
DiMETHYL GLYCINE (DMG)
A substance originally isolated from apricot
kernels. Said to increase oxygen uptake and decrease
recovery time between workouts.
Parallel bars set high
enough above the floor to allow you to do dips between them, leg raises for your
abdominal, and a variety of other exercises. Some gyms have dipping bars, which are angled inward at one
end; these can be used when changing your grip width on dips.
Sometimes called “water
pills,” these drugs and herbal preparations remove excess water from
bodybuilder’s system just prior to a show.
This reveals greater muscular detail.
Harsh chemical diuretics can be quite harmful to your health,
particularly if they are used on a chronic basis. Two
of the side effects of excessive chemical diuretic use are muscle cramps and
heart arrhythmias (irregular heart beats).
Essentially, a dumbbell is a
short-handled barbell (usually 10-12 inches in length) intended primarily for
use with one in each hand. Dumbbells
are especially valuable when training the arms and shoulders, but can be used to
build up almost any muscles.
This vitamin is used as an antioxidant, increases oxygen
availability, ageing retardation, blood cholesterol
reduction, strengthens capillary walls, lung protection,
fertility, and muscle and nerve maintenance.
Important minerals such as potassium, magnesium, sodium
and calcium, that help provide continuity in the passage
of fluid through your body.
A process whereby oil globules are broken down to such
tiny size that they are able to disperse and suspend in
water without separation.
A protein produced by living cells that catalyze chemical
reaction in organic matter.
A crystalline alkaloid C10H15NO extracted from Chinese
plants (genus Ephedra of the family Gnetaceae) or
synthesized and used as a salt in relieving hay fever,
asthma, and nasal congestion.
Movements such as (e.g., a
seated pulley row, barbell curl, or seated calf raise) that you perform in your
A special type of barbell
used in many arm exercises, but particularly for standing EZ-bar curls wherein
it removes strain from your wrists. An
EX-curl bar is also occasionally called a “cambered curling bar.”
Albert Beckles, one of the sport’s most successful professionals,
whimsically calls this piece of equipment a “wiggly bar” because of its
That point in an exercise,
which you have fully fatigued your working muscles. They can no longer complete
an additional repetition of a movement with strict biomechanics.
You should always take your post-warm-up sets at least to the point of
momentary muscular failure, and frequently past that point.
A suppleness of joints,
muscle masses, and connective tissues, which lets you, move your limbs over an
exaggerated range of motion, a valuable quality in bodybuilding training, since
it promotes optimum physical development. Flexibility
can only be attained through systematic stretching training, which should form a
cornerstone of your overall bodybuilding philosophy.
This vitamin is used for red blood cell
formation, protein metabolism, appetite, body growth, and
Forced reps are a frequently used method of extending a set past the point of
failure to induce greater gains in muscle mass and quality.
With forced reps, a training partner pulls upward on the bar just enough
for you to grind out two or three reps past the failure threshold.
This is simply another word
to indicate the biomechanics used during the performance of any bodybuilding or
weight-training movement. Perfect
form involves moving only the muscles specified in an exercise description,
while moving the weight over the fullest possible range.
FREE FORM AMINO ACIDS
Separate and isolate amino acids not bound or
linked to any other amino acids.
Equipment such as: Barbells,
dumbbells, and related equipment. Serious
bodybuilders use a combination of free weights and such exercise machines as
those manufactured by Nautilus and Universal Gyms, but they primarily use free
weights in their workouts.
An essential fatty acid derivative that your body breaks
down to obtain energy. Regulates your cardiovascular
system and may lower blood pressure.
A by-product of rice bran which helps increase
lean body mass while decreasing fatty tissue. Also shown
to help increase testosterone production.
Has properties of being a stimulant, anti
spasmodic and antibiotic. Also helps lower your total
Performing a series of 4-6
exercises, done with little or no rest between each movements, and a rest
interval of 3-4 minutes between each giant sets. You can perform giant sets for either two antagonistic muscle
groups or a single body part.
Highly prized Oriental herb reputed to give long life.
Increases hormone production, improves heart rate,
regulates blood pressure, improves sexual function and
Highly prized Oriental herb reputed to give long life.
Increases hormone production, improves heart rate,
regulates blood pressure, improves sexual function and
Supplements derived from animal glands which help boost
human gland function.
Used in the relief of arthritis.
A tripeptide of glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine;
fundamentally important in cellular respiration.
Applies to the amount of sugar in one's blood.
The normal range is 70-110mg/100 ml.
Of special value as a source of creatine which is
essential for muscle function, breaking down glycogen and
freeing energy. Produces glycogen which mobilizes
glycogens (a stored energy source of glucose) from the
liver. Builds up the immune system, producing
immunoglobulins and antibodies. Acts as a nitrogen pool
for the syntheses of nonessential amino acids. Effective
for hyperacidity,(used in many gastric antacid agents).
GOLDEN SEAL ROOT
A stimulant that increases your body's tonic
properties. Stimulates secretion of bile. A key component
of the emulsion of your body's fat.
HYDROXY CITRIC ACID (CITRIMAX-GARCIAN CAMBOGIA)
A natural citric acid which may help curb the
appetite according to the studies.
This means increase in
muscle mass and an improvement in relative muscular strength. Hypertrophy
is induced by placing an “over-load” on the working muscles with various
training techniques during a bodybuilding workout.
The International Federation
of Bodybuilders, the gigantic sports federation founded in1946 by Joe and Ben
Weider. With more than 120 member
nations, the IFBB proves that bodybuilding is one of the most popular of all
sports on the international level. Through
its member national federations, the IFBB oversees competitions in each nation,
and it directly administers amateur and professional competition for men, women,
and mixed pairs internationally.
A purine nucleotide that promotes oxygen transport and
the release of oxygen molecules into the red blood cells.
Also promotes production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
which is essential for muscle function.
This vitamin is used for cholesterol and fat metabolism,
cholesterol reduction, lecithin information, hair growth,
and retardation of artery hardening.
The degree of effort that
you put into each set of your workout. The
more intensity you place on a working muscle, the more quickly it will increase
in hypertrophy. The most basic
methods of increasing intensity are to use heavier weights in good form in each
exercise, do more reps with a set weight, or perform a consistent number of sets
and reps with a particular weight in a movement, but progressively reducing the
length of rest intervals between sets.
A technique of separating materials by
reversible interchange between ions of like charge.
This mineral is used for hemoglobin production,
stress and disease resistance.
In contrast to a basic
exercise, an isolation movement stresses a single muscle group (or sometimes
just part of a single muscle) in relative isolation from the remainder of the
body. Isolation exercises are good
for shaping and defining various muscle groups.
For your thighs: squats would be a typical basic movement. While leg
extensions would be the equivalent isolation exercise.
In the universally accepted
and applied IFBB system of judging, bodybuilders are evaluated in three
distinctly different rounds of judging, plus a final posedown round for only the
top five competitors after the first three rounds have been adjudicated.
In Round One, the competitors are viewed in groups and individually in
seven well-defined compulsory poses; in Round Two, they are viewed semi-relaxed
from the front, both sides, and back; and in Round Three, they perform their own
uniquely personal free-posing routines to their own choice of music.
Overall, this use of three rounds of judging and a posedown round results
in a very fair choice of the final winners of a bodybuilding championship.
A slang term for anabolic
steroids, e.g., being “on the juice.”
Used as body fuel by tissues of the brain,
nervous system and muscles. Important in converting
energy to stored energy in the body's Kreb's energy
cycle. Important nitrogen quality for post-injury states.
Builds up the immune system producing immunoglobulins and
antibodies. Metabolizes sugars and organic acids.
Indispensable of optimum growth. Stimulates the
release of growth hormone, important to muscle
metabolism; acts as a vehicle for transport, storage and
excretion of nitrogen. Increases muscle mass while
decreasing the amount of body fat. Plays an important
role in post-injury problems such as weight changes,
nitrogen balance and tissue healing. Increases collagen,
the main supportive fibrous protein found in bone,
cartilage and other connective tissue. Stimulates the
immune system. Combats physical and mental fatigue.
Increases spermatogenesis. Used in the treatment of
hepatic (liver) disorders. Transforms to L-Ornithine and
Urea. Promotes the detoxification of ammonia which is
poisonous to living cells.
Increases resistance to fatigue. Involved in the
formation of RNA and DNA, the chemical base of hereditary
and carries of genetic information. Salts of Aspartic
acid increase stamina and endurance. Protects the liver
and promotes normal cell function. Builds up the immune
system producing immunoglobulin and antiglobulin.
Helps recovery from fatigue. Stimulates the
immune system, therefore, is beneficial in the presence
of any illness, disease, traumatic injury or wound.
Metabolizes to L-Arginine. Detoxifies ammonia which is
poisonous to living cells.
Found to increase hair growth by as much as
100%, effective in preventing not only hangovers, but
also brain and liver damage from alcohol. Helps prevent
damage from the ill effects of cigarette smoke.
Detoxifies many harmful chemicals. Helpful in the
treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Promotes healing and
the immune system.
Essential for the formation for skin and hair. Promotes
recovery from surgical operations and burns. Used in the
treatment of respiratory disorders such as chronic
bronchitis. Stimulates white blood cell activity in the
immune systems necessary for the resistance to disease.
Especially important in brain metabolism. Function as a
brain fuel, serving as an excitatory neurotransmitter.
Transports potassium across the blood brain barrier.
Combines to form L-Glutamine and in the process picks up
ammonia radicals. This is the only method the brain has
of detoxifying ammonia. Instrumental in the metabolism of
other amino acids. Metabolizes sugars and fats. Increases
the blood sugar level; used in the treatment of
Sustains mental ability involved with brain metabolism.
Along with L-Glutamic acid is used as a brain fuel. Used
in the treatment of alcoholism, can protect against
alcohol poisoning. Has been used in the treatment of
schizophrenia and senility.
Used in the treatment of allergic diseases. Also
used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Effective
in the treatment of ulcers of the digestive organs.
Important in the production of red and white blood cells;
i.e. treatment of anemia.
Primarily metabolized in muscle tissue.
Essential to the formation of hemoglobin. Should always
be in well balanced proportion with L-Leucine and
Metabolized in muscle tissue. Promotes healing
of skin and broken bones. Lowers elevated blood sugar
levels. Should always be in well balanced proportion with
L-Valine and Isoleucine.
Inhibits the growth of viruses. Used in the
treatment of Herpes Simplex virus. Produces L-Carnitine
which improves stress tolerance and fat metabolism and
has an antifatigue effect. Promotes bone growth by
helping to form collagen, the fibrous protein which makes
up bone, cartilage and other connective tissue.
Lipotropic (preventing excessive fat buildup in
the liver). Helps prevent premature hair loss. Interacts
with other body substances to detoxify harmful compounds.
Is included in nutritional supplementation as an
Stimulates the release of growth hormone which
increases muscle mass while decreasing the amount of body
fat. Helps build up the immune system. Promotes liver
function and regeneration. Important in the formation of
Urea, detoxifying ammonia which is poisonous to living
cells. Promotes healing.
Produces and maintains an elevated and positive
mood, alertness and ambition. Enhances learning and
memory, produces neurotransmitters which control impulse
transmission between nerve cells. Is involved in dopamine
transmission. Used in the treatment of certain types of
depression. Suppresses appetite.
Extremely important for the proper function of
joints and tendons, as well as good heart muscles.
Glycogenic (energy storage source of glucose by the liver
and muscles) a major constituent of collagen, the main
fibrous protein found in bone, cartilage and other
Glycogenic (energy storage source of glucose by
the liver and muscles). Builds up the immune system,
producing immunoglobulins and antibodies.
Lipotropic (preventing fatty buildup in the
liver). Glycogenic (energy storage source of glucose by
the liver and muscles) essential to normal growth.
Generally low in vegetarian diets. Builds up the immune
system producing immunoglobulin and antibodies. Is an
important constitute of collagen and elastin proteins.
Used by the brain to produce the neurotransmitter Serotin
which results in a calming effect. Used in the treatment
of insomnia, stress, anxiety and depression. Stimulates
the release of growth hormone which burns body fat and
acts as an aid in weight control. Used in the treatment
Plays an important role in the function of the adrenal,
pituitary and thyroid glands. Generates red and white
blood cells. Elevates mood. Is used in the treatment of
anxiety, depression and insomnia. Produces melanin, the
skin and hair pigment. Produces Norepinephrine, an
appetite inhibitory neurotransmitter that suppresses
appetite. Stimulates the release of growth hormone which
causes muscle growth and reduces body fat.
Glycogenic (energy storage source of glucose by the liver
and the muscles) metabolized in muscle. Should always be
in well balanced proportion with L-Leucine and
bodybuilders take a one- or two-week layoff from bodybuilding training from time
to time, during which they totally avoid the gym.
A layoff after a period of intense pre-competition preparation is
particularly beneficial as a means of allowing the body to completely rest,
recuperate, and heal any minor training injuries that might have cropped up
during the peaking cycle.
A phospholipid containing glycerol, fatty acids,
phosphoric acid and choline. Serves as a structural
material to every cell in the body. Important to the
brain and nerves.
This is a leather belt 4-6
inches wide at the back that is fastened tightly around your waist when you do
squats, heavy back work, and overhead pressing movements.
A lifting belt adds stability to your midsection, preventing lower back
and abdominal injuries.
Applies to substances essential for fat
metabolism, promoting the physiologic utilization of fat.
Found in natural fruits and vegetables.
The size of the entire
physique, or the size of each muscle group, As long as you also have a high
degree of muscularity and good balance of physical proportions, muscle mass is a
highly prized quality among competitive bodybuilders.
This mineral is used for carbohydrate
metabolism, enzyme activation, reproduction and sex
This mineral is used for muscle relaxation, acid
and alkaline balance, enzyme activation, blood sugar,
calcium and vitamin C metabolism.
A natural hormone available in synthetic form for
supplementation. Used extensively as a sleep aid.
Medium Chain Triglycerides, caprylic acid source.
Provides twice the energy power of proteins and
carbohydrates and reduces muscle protein breakdown during
recovery and healing.
MIXED PAIRS COMPETITION
Couples’ competition, a
relatively new form of bodybuilding competition in which man-woman teams compete
against others with particularly appealing posing routines featuring adagio and
other dance movements.
An alternative term for
“definition” or “cuts.”
A manufacture, of exercise
machines. Used many gyms.
The National Physique
Committee, Inc., which administers men’s and women’s amateur bodybuilding
competitions in the United States. The
NPC National Champions in each weight division are annually sent abroad to
compete in the IFBB World Championships.
The applied science of
eating to foster greater health, fitness, and muscular grains.
Through correct application of nutritional practices, you can selectively
add muscle mass to your physique, or totally strip away all body fat, revealing
the hard-earned muscles lying beneath your skin.
A naturally derived wheat germ oil concentrate which has
been clinically proven to increase oxygen utilization
A term reserved for use when
referring only to a bodybuilder who has competed in the Mr. Olympia or Ms.
A special type of barbell
used in weightlifting and powerlifting competitions, but also used by
bodybuilders in heavy basic exercises such as squats, bench presses, barbell be
rows, standing barbell curls, standing barbell presses, and deadlifts.
An Olympic barbell sans collars weighs 45 pounds, and each collar weighs
The type of weightlifting
competition contested at the Olympic games every four years, as well as at
national and international competitions each year. Two lifts (the snatch and the clean jerk) are contested in a
wide variety of weight classes.
The amount of weight that
you force a muscle to use that is over and above its normal strength ability.
Applying an overload to a muscle forces it to increase in hypertrophy.
PARA-AMINO BENZOIC ACID (PABA)
This vitamin is used for protein metabolism,
intestinal bacteria, absorption of ultraviolet rays, hair
color restoration and blood cell formation.
The absolute zenith of
competitive condition achieved by a bodybuilder. To peak out optimally for a bodybuilding show, you must
intelligently combine bodybuilding training, aerobic workouts, diet, mental
conditioning, tanning, and a large number of other preparatory factors.
PEPTIDE BONDED AMINO ACIDS
Amino acids which are only partially separated
from other amino acids. Usually found in chains and
joined by peptide bound d.
The abbreviation for
“peripheral heart action,” a system of circuit training in which short 4-6
exercise circuits are performed in order to stimulate cardiorespiratory
conditioning and further physical development.
This mineral is used for bone and tooth
formation, cell growth and repair, heart muscle
contractions, energy production, calcium and sugar
metabolism, and kidney function.
The flat discs placed on the
ends of barbell and dumbbell bars to increase the weight of the apparatus.
Although some plates are made from vinyl-covered concrete, the best and
most durable plates are manufactured from metal.
Substance found in flowers and harvested by bees.
Contains all 22 amino acids and 96 other nutrients. Helps
boost energy and endurance and speeds up recovery time.
Each individual stance that
a bodybuilder does onstage in order to highlight his muscular development.
This mineral is used for muscle contraction and
relaxation, enzyme activation, heart beat, and growth.
The amount of weight that
you use in an exercise, whether that weight is on a barbell, dumbbell, or
A second form of competitive
weightlifting (not contested in the Olympics, however) featuring three lifts:
The squat, bench press, and deadlift.
Power lifting is contested both nationally and internationally in a wide
variety of weight classes for both men and women.
A substance which is converted to another; i.e. Beta
Carotene to Vitamin A as it is assimilated by the body.
The act of gradually adding
to the amount of resistance that you use in each exercise.
Without consistent progression in your workouts, you won’t overload
your muscles sufficiently to promote optimum increases in hypertrophy.
Any of numerous naturally occurring extremely complex
combinations of amino acids that contain the elements
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, usu. sulfur, occas.
phosphorus, iron, and/or other elements that are
essential constituents of all living cells and are
synthesized from raw materials by plants but assimilated
as separate amino acids.
The tight, blood-congested
feeling in a muscle after it has been intensely trained.
Muscle pump is caused by a rapid influx of blood into the muscles to
remove fatigue toxins and replace supplies of fuel and oxygen.
A good muscle pump indicates that you have optimally worked a muscle
A natural extract from pine tress. Pycnogenol is a
powerful antioxidant and the most readily absorbed and
bio-available member of the bioflavonoid family.
A type of workout used just
prior to a competition in which the lengths of rest intervals between sets are
progressively reduced to increase overall training intensity and help further
define the physique.
Each individual count of an
exercise that is performed. Series
of repetitions called “sets” are performed on each exercise in your training
The actual amount of weight
that you are using in any exercise.
The brief pause lasting
30-90 between sets that allows your body to partially recuperate prior to
initiating the succeeding set.
See vitamin B2
The same as cut up.
Also called a training
schedule or program, a routine is the total list of exercise, sets, and reps
(and sometimes weights) used in one training session.
Prevents or slows aging caused by antioxidants.
Keeps youthful elasticity in tissues.
A grouping of repetitions
(usually in the range of 6-15) that is followed by a rest interval and usually
another set. Three to five sets are
usually performed of each exercise.
Contains mucopolysaccharides which may cause
anti-angiogenic action that has been shown to be
effective in preventing the formation of some solid
tumors after extended use. May stimulate immune system
The hollow metal tube fit
over the bar on most exercise barbell and dumbbell sets.
This sleeve makes it easier for the bar to rotate in your hands as you do
A chemical substance derived from the Sarsaparilla plant
said to boost natural testosterone levels in the body.
This mineral is used for cellular fluid balance,
and muscle retractions.
Training partners who stand
by to act as safety helpers when you perform such heavy exercises as squats and
bench presses. If you are stuck
under and weight or begin to lose control of it, spotters can rescue you and
prevent needless injuries.
Prescription drugs which
mimic male hormones, but without most of the androgenic side effects of actual
testosterone. Many bodybuilders use
these dangerous drugs to help increase muscle mass and strength.
Plant hormones usually isolated from crude germ oils
which aid the body in hormone production in fat
A stalling out of bodybuilding progress.
A type of exercise program
in which you assume exaggerated postures that stretch muscles, joints, and
connective tissues, hold these positions for several seconds, relax and then
repeat the postures. Regular
stretching exercise promotes body flexibility.
Tiny tears in a
bodybuilder’s skin caused by poor diet and in addition, rapid increases in
bodyweight. If you notice stretch
marks forming on your own body (usually around your pectoral-deltoid tie-ins),
rub vitamin E cream over them two or three times per day, and try cutting back
on your body weight by reducing body fat levels.
The tiny grooves of muscle
across major muscle groups in a highly defined bodybuilder.
Vital nutrients that are important metabolic
activators, especially in the production of ATP, an
This mineral is used for body tissue formation
and collagen synthesis.
Series of two exercises
performed with no rest between sets and a normal rest interval between
supersets. Supersets increase
training intensity by reducing the average length of rest interval between sets.
minerals, and proteins used by bodybuilders to improve the overall quality of
their diets. Many bodybuilders
believe that food supplements help to promote quality muscle growth.
The shape or general outline
of a person’s body, as when seen in silhouette.
If you have good symmetry, you will have relatively wide shoulders,
flaring lats, a small waist-hip structure, and generally small joints.
The joint action of agents so that the combined effect is
greater than the sum of their individual effects.
Found in high concentrations in the tissues of the heart,
skeletal muscle and central nervous system. Used to treat
some forms of epilepsy by controlling seizures.
Hormone produced by both men and women which controls
masculinization in the body and is the key hormone in
muscle building. The male hormone primarily
responsible for the maintenance of muscle mass and strength induced by heavy
training. Testosterone is
secondarily responsible for developing such secondary male sex characteristics
as a deep voice, body hair, and male pattern baldness.
Series of three exercises
performed with no rest between movements and a normal rest interval between
trisets. Trisets increase training
intensity by reducing the average length of rest interval between sets.
Trace mineral which works like insulin to
increase the amount of glucose and amino acids driven
into the muscle.
A prominence of veins and
arteries over the muscles and beneath the skin of a sell-defined bodybuilder.
The 10-15 minutes session of
light calisthenics, aerobic exercise, and stretching taken prior to handling
heavy bodybuilding training movements. A
good warm-up helps to prevent injuries and actually allows you to get more out
of your training than if you went into a workout very cold.
The same as Poundage or
In order for bodybuilders to
compete against men of similar size, the IFBB has instituted weight classes for
all amateur competition. The normal
men’s weight classes are 70 kilograms (kg), 154 pounds (lbs); 80 kg, 176 lbs;
90kg, 198 lbs; and over 90 kg. In a
minority of competitions, particularly in the Far East, one additional class 65
kg, or 143 lbs is also contested.
The competitive form of weight training in which each athlete attempts to
lift as much as he can in well-defined exercises. Olympic lifting and power lifting are the two types of
An umbrella term used to
categorize all acts of using resistance training. Weight training can be used to improve the body, rehabilitate
injuries, improve sports conditioning, or as a competitive activity in terms of
A bodybuilding or
A chemical substance derived from the Yohimbe
said to boost natural testosterone levels in the body.
This mineral is used for protein metabolism,
enzyme activation, burn and wound healing, sex organ
growth, and maturity, prostate gland function,
reproductive organ growth and development.
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